Home » How Do Electric Bikes Work? Here’s Everything You Need to Know

How Do Electric Bikes Work? Here’s Everything You Need to Know

How Do Electric Bikes Work

An electric bike looks quite different from a regular bicycle concerning its working principle. However, it contains nearly the same parts as the standard bike. In addition, the electric bike has some extra electrical features.

The different main parts that vary an electric from a standard bicycle are a motor, a battery, and a detector. These things create the basics of all available electric bikes in the market. All these are flawlessly combined into the design of an electric bike.

In this guide, we’ll explain how an electric bike motor works and talk about some of the pros and cons of e-bikes versus traditional bikes. We’ll also help you decide if an electric bike is right for you. Let’s get started!

What are Electric Bikes?

Electric bikes are electronically designed in addition to the parts of the standard bike. E-bicycle foot lever and handgrip look like a normal ones.

The usual bicycle makes us more tiring compared to an electric bike. Due to its specialized design and structure, one doesn’t feel much tired on an electric bike.

Using an electric bike seems more convenient than using a standard bike for some exceptional cases. For traveling in long-distance places, crossing hurdles such as; mountains, or even high breeze.

An electric bike isn’t intended to swap a human muscle entirely. Instead, it is meant to increase human strength. Less strength and time are required in an electric bike than in a standard bike for going the same distance.

How Do Electric Bikes Work?

An electric bike is a regular bike. What makes it different is the fact that it contains a series of extra components that enable it to work. this is why all of our electric bikes have a pedal assist, such as a motor, a battery, a sensor, and an electric display.

With this setup, the rider needs to pedal before the motor engages, giving him or her a greater challenge but with a built-in lift. Here is a brief explanation of how the major components of electric bikes work.

The power behind an electric bike comes from a battery that is usually mounted on or near one of the wheels. The bike uses either a brushless DC motor or a hub motor to power it with electricity.

When you turn off your e-bike, it stops working instantly because there’s no residual energy left in its batteries—unlike gas-powered bikes that keep running for several seconds after you’ve turned them off.

How Does an e-Bike Charge?

The e-bike is propelled by a rechargeable battery and motor that are attached to a frame. This battery connects to a charger that plugs into your outlet and charges via electricity.

Though, how long it takes to charge will depend on the battery capacity, chargers performance, etc. According to some reports, most e-bikes reach full charge in six hours or less.

That may sound like a lot of time, but consider that many modern cars take longer than that to fill up with gas. E-bikes can also be charged at an electric station using special equipment designed for quick charging (such as Bosch’s Power Tank).

And finally, we should note that there are companies—like Pedego—that sell batteries separately from their bikes. These are generally more expensive and offer fewer features.

But they’re still good options if you don’t already own a bike or don’t mind buying one separately.

Here is a brief explanation of how the major components of electric bikes work.

Essential Parts of an Electric Bike

The electric bike contains almost the same parts as the standard bike. 3 central parts separate it from the normal one. These are written below:


Motor changes electric power into mechanical work that it uses to help turn the bicycle's wheels

The purpose of the engine is to control the force. The amount of power that you can apply depends on your electric bike motor. The more your motor is ground-breaking, the more you can apply pressure.

The pattern and position of the motor play a vital role in how the e-bicycle will work. It is one of the essential factors.

It consists of three parts:

1. Forward Central Area Motor:

This front hub is the easiest one in case of the applications of an e-bike. The locations of these motors are in the central area of the front wheel. The bike moves whenever the steering wheel is moved. This motor is known as the most useful selection.

2. Back Central Area Motor:

This back hub is almost similar to the forward hub, but it is stronger than the front hub. On the other hand, it is also rough and unproductive to use. The bike often loses its stability in this type of motor. This motor is known as the most enjoyable selection.

3. Middle steering Motor:

The motor is situated near the core of the bike. It is used to transfer the engine’s power to the back steering wheel through the bike’s shackles.

It is felt like a normal bike but is quicker and more comfortable to pass through mountains. They are gaining popularity over the past 3-4 years and are known as the electric bicycle engines’ rulers. Each one of these has its advantages and disadvantages.


The battery of an e-bike is detachable. Its location differs from bike to bike, but mostly, it is situated on the backside.
battery powers electric bike motors.

What factors should be considered…

  1. Voltage (V)
  2. Amperes (Amps) & Ampere per hour (Ah)
  3. Watts (W) & Watt per hour (Wh)
  4. Capacity

The charging capacity of each battery varies depending on the size and model of the bike.

The standard time that a battery takes to fully charge is 5-6 hours. The charging system of the e-bike battery is similar to charging your phone.


sensors on an electric bike is a highly important component

The detector of an e-bike is a very significant part. There are 2 kinds of detector that is being used:

Speed Detector

It will instantly involve the engine that will provide you the driving aid when you start foot levering.

Force Detector

It is smoother than the speed sensor. Force sensor gives a quick reaction to cope with your speed while driving.

Hence, these are the main components that separate an electric bike from a regular bike.

The Magic Behind Electric Motorcycles

The working mechanism of electric bikes is intended to be made very easy for anyone to use it. As an electric bike rider, you will have three methods of procedure offered to you for usage:

1. Foot Lever

The foot lever of the e-bike is similar to the standard bike. You can pedal it any time, just like a standard one. No further conflict is created by the engine for which an electric bike seems just like a standard one would do.

The number of gears your bike will have will depend on the bike model you will purchase. Nowadays, some particular types of e-bikes are specially designed with an inner power-driven to give you constant speed without tiring yourself.

2. Foot Lever Aid (often named Electric-Assist)

In the foot lever aid process, there is a particular benefit. You can join your force with the electric one. There is a switch available in the handgrip that allows you to turn it on/off manually. When you activate the switch, you will see that the engine will gradually give you electric power while foot levering.

The switch offers three stages of support;

  1. Low level,
  2. Average Level, and
  3. High Level.

The low and average support levels give 30% and 60% extra power compared to your foot levering.

In contrast, the high-level support doubles it as it provides an extra 100% force.

You can change your speed on your wish, depending on the situation in this process.

This process also creates pedaling easy, levels the mountains, and allows one to relish nature and thus relax oneself. Therefore, the electric assist process usage gives one fantastic enjoyment.

3. Electric Powered

This process lets one just be seated and relax as the engine can do the cycling itself. For using this process, you have to rotate the Accelerator situated on the left handgrip. After activating this process, you will see that the engine gets you moving ahead automatically.

You need to retain the Accelerator if you want to remain in the same state. Otherwise, you can stop the Accelerator whenever you wish. The highest speed in this process is restricted to up to 20 mph. So, you shouldn’t exceed this limit.

These are the working mechanism of an electric bike.


I hope this article helped you know about how electric bikes work. The working process of an electric bike is designed to make it easy to use for everyone. It is gradually gaining popularity among people due to these special characteristics.

One of the first things to remember is that electric bikes aren’t for everyone. If you live in a hilly area and want a little push to get up hills, or if you ride sometimes just because you enjoy riding your bike or want to exercise and don’t necessarily have somewhere to put your bike on public transit… well that’s not what electric bikes are for. If you fit these criteria, then perhaps an electric bike isn’t so much for you.

But! This doesn’t mean there won’t be other people who will benefit from them. They can be used by anyone with physical limitations who might otherwise struggle with a traditional bicycle, like someone with a bad knee or leg injury. They can also be useful for people who commute by bike but need to carry their stuff around.